1. Keiser O, Fellay J, Opravil M, et al. Adverse events to antiretrovirals in the Swiss HIV Cohort Study. Antivir Ther. 12(8):1157-64.2007.
  2. Maggi P, Di Biagio A, Rusconi S, et al. Cardiovascular risk and dyslipidemia among persons living with HIV: a review. BMC Infect Dis.17(1):551.2017
  3. Molina JM, Andrade-Villanueva J, Echevarria J, et al. Once-daily atazanavir/ritonavir versus twice-daily lopinavir/ritonavir, each in combination with tenofovir and emtricitabine, for management of antiretroviral-naïve HIV-1-infected patients: 48 week efficacy and safety results of the CASTLE study. Lancet. 372:646-55, 2008.
  4. Smith KY, Weinberg WG, Dejesus E, et al. Fosamprenavir or atazanavir once daily boosted with ritonavir 100 mg, plus tenofovir/emtricitabone, for the initial treatment of HIV infection. AIDS Res Ther. 5:5, 2008.
  5. Mills AM, Nelson M, Jayaweera D, et al. Once-daily darunavir/ritonavir vs. lopinavir/ritonavir in treatment-naïve, HIV-1- infected patients: 96-week analysis. AIDS. 23:1679-88, 2009.
  6. Grinspoon S, Carr A. Cardiovascular risk and body-fat abnormalities in HIV-infected adults. N Engl J Med. 352:48-62, 2005.
  7. Friis-Møller N, Sabin CA, Weber R, et al. Combination antiretroviral therapy and the risk of myocardial infarction. N Engl J Med. 349:1993-2003, 2003.
  8. d'Arminio A, Sabin CA, Phillips AN, et al. Cardio- and cerebrovascular events in HIV-infected persons. AIDS. 18:1811-17, 2004.
  9. DAD Study Group, Friis-Møller N, Reiss P, Sabin CA, et al. Class of Antiretroviral Drugs and the Risk of Myocardial Infarction. N Engl J Med. 356:1723-35, 2007.
  10. Worm SW, Sabin C, Weber R, et al. Risk of myocardial infarction in patients with HIV infection exposed to specific individual antiretroviral drugs from the 3 major drug classes: the data collection on adverse events of anti-HIV drugs (D:A:D) study. J Infect Dis. 201(3):318-30.2010
  11. Ryom L,Lundgren JD, El-Sadr WM,et al.Cardiovascular disease and use of contemporary protease inhibitors: the D:A:D international prospective multicohort study. Lancet HIV. 5(6):e291-e300.2018
  12. D:A:D Study Group, Sabin CA, Worm SW, Weber R, et al. Use of nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors and risk of myocardial infarction in HIV-infected patients enrolled in the D:A:D study: amulticohort collaboration. Lancet. 371:1417-26, 2008.
  13. Strategies for Management of Anti-Retroviral Therapy/INSIGHT; DAD Study Groups. Use of nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors and risk of myocardial infarction in HIV-infected patients. AIDS. 22:F17-F24, 2008.
  14. Brothers CH, Hernandez JE, Cutrell AG, et al. Risk of myocardial infarction and abacavir therapy: no increased risk across 52 GlaxoSmithKline-sponsored clinical trials in adult subjects. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr, 51:20-28, 2009.
  15. Ding X, Andraca-Carrera E, Cooper C, et al. No association of abacavir use with myocardial infarction: findings of an FDA meta-analysis. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 61:441-47, 2012.
  16. D:A:D Study Group, Friis-Møller N, Ryom R, Smith C, et al. An updated prediction model of the global risk of cardiovascular disease in HIV-positive persons: The Data-collection on Adverse Effects of Anti-HIV Drugs (D:A:D) study. Eur J Cardiol 23: 214-23, 2016.
  17. Isezuo SA, Makusidi MA. Metabolic dysfunctions in non-antiretroviral treated HIV/AIDS patients. Niger J Clin Pract. 12:375-78, 2009.
  18. Ehrenreich H, Rieckmann P, Sinowatz F, et al. Potent stimulation of monocytic endothelin-1 production by HIV-1 glycoprotein 120. J Immunol. 150:4601-9, 1993.
  19. Gutierrez J, Albuquerque ALA, Falzon L. HIV infection as vascular risk: A systematic review of the literature and meta-analysis. PLoS One.12(5):e0176686.2017
  20. Maggi P, Di Biagio A, Rusconi S, et al. Cardiovascular risk and dyslipidemia among persons living with HIV: a review. BMC Infect Dis.17(1):551.2017
  21. Gallant JE, Staszewski S, Pozniak AL, et al. Efficacy and Safety of Tenofovir DF vs Stavudine in Combination Therapy in Antiretroviral-Naïve Patients. JAMA, 292:191-201, 2004.
  22. Moyle GJ, Stellbrink HJ, Compston J, et al. 96-Week results of abacavir/lamivudine versus tenofovir/emtricitabine, plus efavirenz, in antiretroviral-naive, HIV-1-infected adults: ASSERT study. Antivir Ther. 18:905-13, 2013.
  23. Aberg JA, Gallant JE, Ghanem KG, et al; Infectious Diseases Society of America. Primary care guidelines for the management of persons infected with HIV: 2013 update by the HIV medicine association of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. Clin Infect Dis. 58(1):1-10.2014
  24. Baylor MS, Johann-Liang R. Hepatotoxicity associated with nevirapine use. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 35:538-9, 2004.
  25. DHHS: Guidelines for the Use of Antiretroviral Agents in Adults and Adolescents Living with HIV (October 25, 2018). (
  26. Kovari H, Ledergerber B, Peter U, et al. Association of noncirrhotic portal hypertension in HIV-infected persons and antiretroviral therapy with didanosine: a nested case-control study. Clin Infect Dis. 49:626-35, 2009.
  27. Hamada Y, Nishijima T, Watanabe K, et al. High Incidence of Renal Stones Among HIV-Infected Patients on Ritonavir-Boosted Atazanavir Than in Those Receiving Other Protease Inhibitor-Containing Antiretroviral Therapy. Clin Infect Dis. 55(9):1262-9, 2012.
  28. Nishijima T, Hamada Y, Watanabe K, et al. Ritonavir-boosted darunavir is rarely associated with nephrolithiasis compared with ritonavir-boosted atazanavir in HIV-infected patients. PLoS One, 8:e77268, 2013.
  29. Rule AD, Bergstralh EJ, Melton LJ 3rd, et al. Kidney stones and the risk for chronic kidney disease. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol, 4:804-11, 2009.
  30. Mocroft A, Kirk O, Reiss P, et al. Estimated glomerular filtration rate, chronic kidney disease and antiretroviral drug use in HIVpositive patients. AIDS. 24:1667-78, 2010.
  31. Young J, Schäfer J, Fux CA, et al. Renal function in patients with HIV starting therapy with tenofovir and either efavirenz, lopinavir or atazanavir. AIDS, 26:567-75, 2012.
  32. Nelson MR, Katlama C, Montaner JS, et al. The safety of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate for the treatment of HIV infection in adults: the first 4 years. AIDS. 21:1273-81,2007.
  33. Nishijima T, Komatsu H, Gatanaga H, et al. Impact of small body weight on tenofovir-associated renal dysfunction in HIVinfected patients: a retrospective cohort study of Japanese patients. PLoS One. 6:e22661, 2011.
  34. Gallant JE, Moore RD. Renal function with use of a tenofovir-containing initial antiretroviral regimen. AIDS. 23:1971-75, 2009.
  35. Goicoechea M, Liu S, Best B, et al. Greater tenofovir-associated renal function decline with protease inhibitor-based versus nonnucleoside reverse- transcriptase inhibitor-based therapy. J Infect Dis. 197:102-8, 2008.
  36. Nishijima T, Shimbo T, Komatsu H, et al. Urinary beta-2 microglobulin and alpha-1 microglobulin are useful screening markers for tenofovir-induced kidney tubulopathy in patients with HIV-1 infection: a diagnostic accuracy study. J Infect Chemother, 19:850-7, 2013.
  37. Gatanaga H, Nishijima T, Tsukada K, et al. Clinical importance of hyperbeta-2-microglobulinuria in patients with HIV-1 infection on tenofovir-containing antiretroviral therapy. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 65:e155-7, 2014.
  38. Ruane PJ, DeJesus E, Berger D, et al. Antiviral activity, safety, and pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics of tenofovir alafenamide as 10-day monotherapy in HIV-1-positive adults. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr.63(4):449-55.2013
  39. Mills A, Arribas JR, Andrade-Villanueva J, et al. Switching from tenofovir disoproxil fumarate to tenofovir alafenamide in antiretroviral regimens for virologically suppressed adults with HIV-1 infection: a randomised, active-controlled, multicentre, open-label, phase 3, non-inferiority study. Lancet Infect Dis.16(1):43-52.2016
  40. Raffi F, Orkin C, Clarke A, et al. Brief Report: Long-Term (96-Week) Efficacy and Safety After Switching From Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate to Tenofovir Alafenamide in HIV-Infected, Virologically Suppressed Adults. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr.75(2):226-31.2017
  41. Post FA, Tebas P, Clarke A, et al. Switching to Tenofovir Alafenamide, Coformulated With Elvitegravir, Cobicistat, and Emtricitabine, in HIV-Infected Adults With Renal Impairment: 96-Week Results From a Single-Arm, Multicenter, Open-Label Phase 3 Study. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr.74(2):180-4.2017
  42. Wohl D, Oka S, Clumeck N, et al. A Randomized, Double-Blind Comparison of Tenofovir Alafenamide Versus Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate, Each Coformulated With Elvitegravir, Cobicistat, and Emtricitabine for Initial HIV-1 Treatment: Week 96 Results. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr.72(1):58-64.2016
  43. Arribas JR, Thompson M, Sax PE, et al. Brief Report: Randomized, Double-Blind Comparison of Tenofovir Alafenamide (TAF) vs Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate (TDF), Each Coformulated With Elvitegravir, Cobicistat, and Emtricitabine (E/C/F) for Initial HIV-1 Treatment: Week 144 Results. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr.75(2):211-218.2017
  44. Yanagisawa N, Ando M, Ajisawa A, et al. Clinical Characteristics of Kidney Disease in Japanese HIV-Infected Patients. Nephron Clin Pract. 118:c285-c291, 2011.
  45. 村松崇, 柳澤如樹, 近澤悠志, 他.本邦のHIV感染者における慢性腎臓病の有病率 2施設での調査結果.感染症学雑誌 87:14-21,2013
  46. Fernando SK, Finkelstein FO, Moore BA, et al. Prevalence of chronic kidney disease in an urban HIV infected population. Am J Med Sci. 335:89-94, 2008.
  47. Mocroft A, Kirk O, Gatell J, et al. Chronic renal failure among HIV-1-infected patients. AIDS. 21:1119-27, 2007.
  48. Nishijima T, Kawasaki Y, Tanaka N, et al. Long-term exposure to tenofovir continuously decrease renal function in HIV-1-infected patients with low body weight: results from 10 years of follow-up. AIDS, 28:1903-10, 2014.
  49. German P, Liu HC, Szwarcberg J, et al. Effect of cobicistat on glomerular filtration rate in subjects with normal and impaired renal function. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 61(1):32-40, 2012.
  50. Koteff J, Borland J, Chen S, et al. A phase 1 study to evaluate the effect of dolutegravir on renal function via measurement of iohexol and para-aminohippurate clearance in healthy subjects. Br J Clin Pharmacol, 75:990-6, 2013.
  51. Castagna A, Maggiolo F, Penco G, et al. Dolutegravir in Antiretroviral-Experienced Patients With Raltegravir- and/or Elvitegravir-Resistant HIV-1: 24-Week Results of the Phase III VIKING-3 Study. J Infect Dis. 210(3):354-62. 2014.
  52. 宮崎有紀,楠木靖史,小島裕人,他. 日本人を含む世界のHLA-B*57:01分布について─アバカビル過敏症に対する考察─日本エイズ学会誌19 : 24-28,2017
  53. Honda H, Tsukada K, Yazaki H, et al. Low incidence of abacavir-associated hypersensitivity reactions in Japanese HIV-1-infected patients. 4th IAS Conference 2007, Sydney, MOPEB005
  54. Brown TT, Qaquish RB. Antiretroviral therapy and the prevalence of osteopenia and osteoporosis: a meta-analytic review. AIDS. 20:2165-74, 2006.
  55. Cazanave C, Dupon M, Lavignolle-Aurillac V, et al. Reduced bone mineral density in HIV-infected patients: prevalence and associated factors. AIDS. 22:395-402, 2008.
  56. Brown TT, McComsey GA, King MS, et al. Loss of bone mineral density after antiretroviral therapy initiation, independent of antiretroviral regimen. J Acuir Immune Defic Syndr. 51:554-61, 2009.
  57. Grund B, Peng G, Gibert CL, et al. Continuous antiretroviral therapy decreases bone mineral density. AIDS. 23:1519-29, 2009.
  58. Fux CA, Rauch A, Simcock M, et al. Tenofovir use is associated with an increase in serum alkaline phosphatase in the Swiss HIV Cohort Study. Antivir Ther. 13:1077-82, 2008.
  59. Kinai E, Hanabusa H. Progressive renal tubular dysfunction associated with long-term use of tenofovir DF. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 25:387-94, 2009.
  60. Borderi M, Gibellini D, Vescini F, et al. Metabolic bone disease in HIV infection. AIDS. 23:1297-1310, 2009.
  61. European AIDS Clinical Society (EACS) Guidelines. Version 9.1 - October 2018 (
  62. Mollan KR, Smurzynski M, Eron JJ, et al. Association between efavirenz as initial therapy for HIV-1 infection and increased risk for suicidal ideation or attempted or completed suicide: an analysis of trial data. Ann Intern Med, 161:1-10, 2014.
  63. Gatanaga H, Hayashida T, Tsuchiya K, et al. Successful efavirenz dose reduction in HIV type 1-infected individuals with cytochrome P450 2B6 *6 and *26. Clin Infect Dis. 45:1230-7, 2007.
  64. de Boer MG, van den Berk GE, van Holten N, et al. Intolerance of dolutegravir-containing combination antiretroviral therapy regimens in real-life clinical practice. AIDS. 30(18):2831-4.2016
  65. Hoffmann C, Welz T, Sabranski M, et al. Higher rates of neuropsychiatric adverse events leading to dolutegravir discontinuation in women and older patients. HIV Med. 18(1):56-63.2017
  67. Yagura H, Watanabe D, Kushida H, et al. Impact of UGT1A1 gene polymorphisms on plasma dolutegravir trough concentrations and neuropsychiatric adverse events in Japanese individuals infected with HIV-1. BMC Infect Dis.17(1):622.2017
  68. McComsey G. and Lonergan JT. Mitochondrial Dysfunction: Patient Monitoring and Toxicity Management. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 37:S30-S35, 2004.
  69. John M, Moore CB, James IR, et al. Chronic hyperlactatemia in HIV-infected patients taking antiretroviral therapy. AIDS. 15:717-23, 2001.
  70. A Arenas-Pinto, AD Grant, S Edwards, et al. Lactic acidosis in HIV infected patients: a systematic review of published cases. Sex Transm Infect. 79:340-3, 2003.
  71. HIV Neuromuscular Syndrome Study Group. HIV-associated neuromuscular weakness syndrome. AIDS. 18:1403-12, 2004.
  72. Schambelan M, Benson CA, Carr A, et al; International AIDS Society-USA. Management of metabolic complications associated with antiretroviral therapy for HIV-1 infection: recommendations of an International AIDS Society-USA panel. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 31:257-75, 2002.
  73. Carr A, Samaras K, Chisholm DJ, et al. Pathogenesis of HIV-1-protease inhibitor-associated peripheral lipodystrophy, hyperlipidemia and insulin resistance. Lancet. 351:1881-3, 1998.
  74. Miller KD, Jones E, Yanovski JA, et al. Visceral abdominal-fat accumulation associated with use of indinavir. Lancet. 351:871-5, 1998.
  75. McComsey GA, Ward DJ, Hessenthaler SM, et al. Improvement in lipoatrophy associated with highly active antiretroviral therapy in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients switched from stavudine to abacavir or zidovudine: the results of the TARHEEL study. Clin Infect Dis. 38: 263-70, 2004.
  76. McComsey GA, Kitch D, Sax PE, et al. Peripheral and central fat changes in subjects randomized to abacavir-lamivudine or tenofovir-emtricitabine with atazanavir-ritonavir or efavirenz: ACTG Study A5224s. Clin Infect Dis. 53(2):185-96.2011
  77. Kikuchi Y, Genka I, Ishizaki A, et al. Serious Bradyarrhythmia That Was Possibly Induced by Lopinavir-Ritonavir in 2 Patients with Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome. Clin Infect Dis. 35(4), 488-90, 2002.
  78. Zembower TR, Gerzenshtein L, Coleman K, et al. Severe rhabdomyolysis associated with raltegravir use. AIDS. 22(11):1382-4, 2008.
  79. Madeddu G, De Socio GV, Ricci E, et al. Muscle symptoms and creatine phosphokinase elevations in patients receiving raltegravir in clinical practice: Results from the SCOLTA project long-term surveillance. Int J Antimicrob Agents. 45(3):289-94, 2015.
  80. Rakotondravelo S, Poinsignon Y, Borsa-Lebas F, et al. Complicated atazanavir-associated cholelithiasis: a report of 14cases. Clin Infect Dis. 55(9):1270-2, 2012.
  81. Nishijima T, Shimbo T, Komatsu H, et al. Cumulative exposure to ritonavir-boosted atazanavir is associated with cholelithiasis in patients with HIV-1 infection. J Antimicrob Chemother. 69(5):1385-9,2014.
  82. Zash R, Holmes L, Makhema J, et al. Surveillance for neural tube defects following antiretroviral exposure from conception. Presented at: 22nd International AIDS Conference. 2018. Amsterdam.
  83. Zash R, Makhema J, Shapiro RL. Neural-tube defects with dolutegravir treatment from the time of conception. N Engl J Med.379(10):979-81.2018